Unravelling the Evolution of the Allatostatin-Type A, KISS and Galanin Peptide-Receptor Gene Families in Bilaterians: Insights from Anopheles Mosquitoes. | - CCMAR -

Journal Article

TitleUnravelling the Evolution of the Allatostatin-Type A, KISS and Galanin Peptide-Receptor Gene Families in Bilaterians: Insights from Anopheles Mosquitoes.
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsFélix, RC, Trindade, M, Pires, IRP, Fonseca, VG, Martins, RS, Silveira, H, Power, DM, Cardoso, JCR
Year of Publication2015
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2015
KeywordsAmino Acid Sequence, Animals, Anopheles, Calcium Signaling, Evolution, Molecular, Fat Body, Female, Gene Expression, Genome, Insect, Glucose, Insect Proteins, Intestines, Mice, Molecular Sequence Data, Multigene Family, Ovary, Phylogeny, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Receptors, Galanin, Receptors, Neuropeptide, Reproduction, Sequence Alignment, Synteny

UNLABELLED: Allatostatin type A receptors (AST-ARs) are a group of G-protein coupled receptors activated by members of the FGL-amide (AST-A) peptide family that inhibit food intake and development in arthropods. Despite their physiological importance the evolution of the AST-A system is poorly described and relatively few receptors have been isolated and functionally characterised in insects. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origin and comparative evolution of the AST-A system. To determine how evolution and feeding modified the function of AST-AR the duplicate receptors in Anopheles mosquitoes, were characterised. Phylogeny and gene synteny suggested that invertebrate AST-A receptors and peptide genes shared a common evolutionary origin with KISS/GAL receptors and ligands. AST-ARs and KISSR emerged from a common gene ancestor after the divergence of GALRs in the bilaterian genome. In arthropods, the AST-A system evolved through lineage-specific events and the maintenance of two receptors in the flies and mosquitoes (Diptera) was the result of a gene duplication event. Speciation of Anopheles mosquitoes affected receptor gene organisation and characterisation of AST-AR duplicates (GPRALS1 and 2) revealed that in common with other insects, the mosquito receptors were activated by insect AST-A peptides and the iCa2+-signalling pathway was stimulated. GPRALS1 and 2 were expressed mainly in mosquito midgut and ovaries and transcript abundance of both receptors was modified by feeding. A blood meal strongly up-regulated expression of both GPRALS in the midgut (p < 0.05) compared to glucose fed females. Based on the results we hypothesise that the AST-A system in insects shared a common origin with the vertebrate KISS system and may also share a common function as an integrator of metabolism and reproduction.HIGHLIGHTS: AST-A and KISS/GAL receptors and ligands shared common ancestry prior to the protostome-deuterostome divergence. Phylogeny and gene synteny revealed that AST-AR and KISSR emerged after GALR gene divergence. AST-AR genes were present in the hemichordates but were lost from the chordates. In protostomes, AST-ARs persisted and evolved through lineage-specific events and duplicated in the arthropod radiation. Diptera acquired and maintained functionally divergent duplicate AST-AR genes.



Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID26135459
PubMed Central IDPMC4489612