Gla-rich protein is a potential new vitamin K target in cancer: evidences for a direct GRP-mineral interaction. | - CCMAR -

Journal Article

TitleGla-rich protein is a potential new vitamin K target in cancer: evidences for a direct GRP-mineral interaction.
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsViegas, CSB, Herfs, M, Rafael, MS, Enriquez, JL, Teixeira, A, Luís, IM, Hoofd, CMR van 't, João, A, Maria, VL, Cavaco, S, Ferreira, A, Serra, M, Theuwissen, E, Vermeer, C, Simes, DC
Year of Publication2014
JournalBiomed Res Int
Date Published2014
Keywordsalpha-Galactosidase, Breast Neoplasms, Calcinosis, Carcinoma, Basal Cell, Female, Humans, Naphthoquinones, Osteocalcin, Skin Neoplasms, Vitamin K

Gla-rich protein (GRP) was described in sturgeon as a new vitamin-K-dependent protein (VKDP) with a high density of Gla residues and associated with ectopic calcifications in humans. Although VKDPs function has been related with γ-carboxylation, the Gla status of GRP in humans is still unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of recently identified GRP spliced transcripts, the γ-carboxylation status, and its association with ectopic calcifications, in skin basal cell and breast carcinomas. GRP-F1 was identified as the predominant splice variant expressed in healthy and cancer tissues. Patterns of γ-carboxylated GRP (cGRP)/undercarboxylated GRP (ucGRP) accumulation in healthy and cancer tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry, using newly developed conformation-specific antibodies. Both GRP protein forms were found colocalized in healthy tissues, while ucGRP was the predominant form associated with tumor cells. Both cGRP and ucGRP found at sites of microcalcifications were shown to have in vitro calcium mineral-binding capacity. The decreased levels of cGRP and predominance of ucGRP in tumor cells suggest that GRP may represent a new target for the anticancer potential of vitamin K. Also, the direct interaction of cGRP and ucGRP with BCP crystals provides a possible mechanism explaining GRP association with pathological mineralization.


Alternate JournalBiomed Res Int
PubMed ID24949434
PubMed Central IDPMC4052551