|Title||Identification of novel phospholipase A2 group IX members in metazoans.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Nevalainen, TJ, Morgado, I, Cardoso, JCR|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Date Published||2013 Aug|
|Keywords||Animals, Bacteria, Conserved Sequence, Evolution, Molecular, Fungi, Invertebrates, Phospholipases A2, Secretory, Phylogeny, Sequence Alignment|
Sequence homologues of the bacterium Streptomyces violaceoruber and sea anemone Nematostella vectensis PLA2 pfam09056 members were identified in several bacteria, fungi and metazoans illustrating the evolution of this PLA2 sub-family. Comparison of their molecular structures revealed that bacteria and fungi members are part of the GXIV of PLA2s while metazoan representatives are similar with GIX PLA2 of the marine snail Conus magus. Members of GXIV and GIX PLA2s show modest overall sequence similarity (21-35%) but considerable motif conservation within the putative Ca(2+)-binding, catalytic sites and cysteine residue positions which are essential for enzyme function. GXIV PLA2s of bacteria and fungi typically contain four cysteine residues composing two intramolecular disulphide bonds. GIX PLA2 homologues were identified in cnidarians and molluscs and in a single tunicate but appear to be absent from other metazoan genomes. The mature GIX PLA2 deduced peptides contain up to ten cysteine residues capable of forming five putative disulphide bonds. Three disulphide bonds were identified in GIX PLA2s, two of which correspond to those localized in GXIV PLA2s. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that metazoan GIX PLA2s cluster separate from the bacterial and fungal GXIV PLA2s and both pfam09056 members form a group separate from the prokaryote and eukaryote GXIIA PLA2 pfam06951. Duplicate PLA2 pfam09056 genes were identified in the genomes of sea anemone N. vectensis and oyster Crassostrea gigas suggest that members of this family evolved via species-specific duplication events. These observations indicate that the newly identified metazoan pfam09056 members may be classified as GIX PLA2s and support the idea of the common evolutionary origin of GXIV and GIX PLA2 pfam09056 members, which emerged early in bacteria and were maintained in the genomes of fungi and selected extant metazoan taxa.